Extraction and formation of high brightness ion beams from plasmas is one of the hot topics in physics of modern ion sources for heavy ion accelerators. With this respect much of experimental and theoretical efforts of numerous groups in accelerator laboratories and in universities are centered on investigation of plasma phenomena determining the charge state distribution and the intensity of ion beams. Generation of intense beams, in particularly of multiply charged ions, is strongly influenced by equilibrium between multiple electron collision ionization and recombination in plasma. Emphasis of related R&D activities is being directed primarily to measurement of plasma parameters and to development of adequate diagnostic techniques.
Plasma conditions and plasma generation methods specific for different types of ion sources like LIS, MEVVA, EBIS, ECR are under consideration. The advantages and application area for each type of ion source are discussed.
In the context of the next-generation accelerator facilities at CERN, ITEP-Moscow and GSI-Darmstadt highly charged ion generation in laser produced plasma is emphasized.
Research into extreme state of matter with respect to temperature and pressure characterized as dense non-ideal plasma is the most challenging aspect for plasma generated by intense heavy ion accelerators. Special attention is paid to the plasma generated by intense heavy ion beams related to fundamental aspects of High Energy Density in Matter Physics and to Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion.
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