Modern survey techniques, principles, instrumentation, and applied geodesy with their application in the alignment of accelerator and detector elements will be presented in the course. A synopsis of the different ways to define a reference system (from Global Geodetic to Local Object Systems) will also be included. Examples will be taken from the situation at CERN, including the evolution of the CERN Coordinate System (PS to SPS to LEP to LHC/CNGS) and the update of the vertical geodetic reference surface (datum), currently in progress. Subjects such as the reference targets for machine and detector elements, tracking of ground motion will be treated, and the issues associated with very long neutrino beam lines will be presented.
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