The On-Line Isotope Separator ISOLDE is a facility dedicated to the production of a large variety of radioactive ion beams for a number of different experiments in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. The facility is located at the Proton Synchroton Booster (PSB) of CERN. Physics at ISOLDE is pursued in several directions. The results obtained have implications for the basic understanding of the structure of t...
The next generation of accelerators will have to master high power beams. Conceptual and engineering challenges of collimator systems, beam absorbers and secondary particle production targets will be addressed.
Today's beam intercepting components cope with beams in the kW range. Those of future neutrino factories, spallation sources and compact linear colliders will be exposed to beam energies in the MW range, and will require handling the risks of high energy de...
Advances in the physics and technology of the photoinjectors, linear colliders, insertion devices and free-electron laser make it now possible to generate coherent radiation in the x-ray region by means of
Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE) process.
This radiation has much higher brightness, shorter pulses and coherence than present third generation light sources.
The status of the physics and technology involved in a radiati...
Pulsed magnetic fields are used where the generation of continuous fields is impossible or not economic. The applications cover all transient high magnetic field requirements for beam kickers, beam lenses (magnetic horns), LASER's, plasma and fusion research. The generation of high transient currents requires energy storage, fast switches and circuits withstanding high dynamic forces. The need of mastering the side-effects, mainly ionising and non-ionising radiation, add...
Extraction and formation of high brightness ion beams from plasmas is a hot topic in physics of modern ion sources for heavy ion accelerators. Many experimental and theoretical efforts of groups in laboratories and universities are centered on investigation of plasma phenomena determining the charge state distribution and the intensity of ion beams. Generation of intense beams, in particular of multiply charged ions, is strongly influenced by the equilibrium between mult...
Accelerators, both circular and linear, have been stretching their limits in order to deliver appropriate conditions for high energy physics experiments. Are accelerators like the LHC at the limit of what technology can achieve on the earth? Will future accelerators have to be designed and built in space, in order to move on to the next generation of High Energy Physics experiments?
Thermonuclear fusion research using the confinement device facilities represents a prominent science project. International Community is now committing important effort to experiments with burning plasma, hot and dense enough to produce significant nuclear fusion reactions. The methods used to enhance equipment performance have a profound and immediate effect on machine design. This series of lectures covers the aspects of research into nuclear fusion technology and the ...
Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a method of "breeding" computer programs and solutions to optimization or search problems by means of simulated evolution. Processes loosely based on natural selection, crossover, and mutation are repeatedly applied to a population of binary strings which represent potential solutions. Over time, the number of
above average individuals increases, and better fit individuals are created, until a good solution to the problem at hand is found.
Like all projects, software projects have risks. Risks that were not foreseen and planned for, frequently cause major project issues and even failures. Such risks could be due to problems in the project or to external events. For example, changing requirements, integration problems, unavailability of skills, design issues, faulty technologies are frequent causes of problems. These issues are usually a challenge and a major source of worry for project supervisors, their m...
Will Microsoft and Apple continue struggling to seize larger parts of their market? Or will users massively drop them in favour of open (and free) standards like Linux? Is the major user backoff/withholding from Windows-XP a message against pushing licensing so far?
Are hybrid systems (such as Mac OS X) an appropiate blend?
Where is the borderline between commercial and open products? Customer service, product support, value for the money?
A series of talks will address...
This series will offer an overview on the main challenges and computing strategies in fields such as Biology, Space Science and Meteorology. We may be surprised to learn that High Energy Physics is not that different after all!
The network infrastructures we use today, in particular the Internet, rely on an architectural model which resulted from guiding principles laid down in the mid 70's. At that time, mobility, wireless access, predictable quality of service, scalability to trillions of connected devices, and security were not considered as stringent requirements. Over the past two years, active research has been conducted to revisit the network architecture, and to determine whether it ca...
The LHC detectors have an unprecedented precision and granularity. One physics event needs a few Megabytes of storage. Experiments expect to store 109 events per year, and about half this amount for simulation
purposes. The lectures give an in-depth view of the challenges to be met when running a few thousand CPU's in parallel per LHC-experiment, when storing a few dozen Petabytes of data for analysis (in an effectively structured way), and when providing CPU ...
Modern particle accelerators and detectors rely heavily on superconductivity, both for accelerating (cavities) and beam-positioning or beam-deviating devices (magnets). Superconductivity is hence the main rationale for the development of cryogenic engineering at CERN. With the construction of the LHC, this technology will have an even greater impact on machine and detectors' operations. The goal of the course is to give non-specialists an appreciation of the basic princi...
Precise computation of stresses by Finite Element Methods and the application of high strength structural alloys in modern structures resulted in weight saving and reduction of safety factors. Fracture mechanics aims to limit operation stresses through design and to guarantee the expected service life of a structure containing flaws.
A review of surface engineering techniques will be presented, including treatments of the surface and near surface regions to perform functions that are distinct from the bulk material functions. Coating techniques, and thin films analysis and characterization, with focus on HEP applications, will also be discussed.
After an introduction to hardware and software of microcomputers for the surveillance and control of processes in a real-time mode, "real-time systems" and their typical hardware structures will be discussed in detail. The critical assessment of optimal hardware and software solutions for a given simple problem related to the handling of real-time processes will be emphasized.
The lecture will include: Definition of "real-time processes"; realisation of real-time systems...
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a computer based method for simulating or analysing the behaviour of engineering structures or components. By being able to predict the performance of a proposed design (mechanical, thermal, magnetic and electrical), FEA can assist in the development of research apparatus for high energy physics, providing engineering information for a more efficient and safer design, which cannot be obtained by traditional means.
Early identification and protection of intellectual property is now essential in academia and research organisations that want to be seen as centres of excellence, seeking at the same time larger public recognition. Promotion and transfer of technology to industry, medicine or energy production are therefore important issues.
Patents, copyrights, licenses and trademarks are then means of communicating technical innovation to industry and society: a proactive attitude hel...
The lecture series held in spring 2000 provided an overview of the energy problem related to demography, risk evaluation, waste and cost, and discussed alternative energy sources like the energy amplifier, Americium and wind energy.
A new lecture series would complement the topic, by addressing solar energy, ocean stream energy, energy storage, and classical fossil energy, with its risks a...
Since a few decades physics experiments have been performed in space, on board of sounding rockets, orbiting satellites or manned spacecraft, like the Spacelab, the MIR space station, the Space Shuttle, and the ISS to name the most recent. Many fields of physics have been explored, sometimes with small, self-contained experiments: diffusion processes in various materials,
development of flames in a microgravity environment, or
water electrolysis in space, and, last but n...
The word meteorite inspires fear and curiosity in the population. Several movies have shown them as carriers of catastrophes and disasters, but not everybody is afraid of them. They are fascinating objects full of information studied by hundreds of scientists around the world.
This seminar will show the techniques used to analyze their composition, their history and also the trace that they have let in our planet and in other planets. We will see the RAMAN sp...
Will future transport systems be safer and less energy hungry?
During the 19th and the first half of the 20th century railroads were constructed, taking a major part in land transport. During the 20th century road transport took over, but at the start of the 21st century the limits of road traffic appear, such as negative effects on the earth environment due to the combustion engines, a heavy death toll paid every year due...
«Complex systems, chaos, and the interface between physics and social science»
The analysis of complex systems represents a great challenge in many areas of pure and applied science. Different techniques have been developed during the past few years, including mechanisms for generating deterministic chaos, which have produced new theoretical insights. These have improved our understanding of data analysis, and in p...
In 1993, it was discovered that quantum states can be teleported. Accordingly, objects can be transported
from one place to another without existing in between, the structure of matter only (but not matter itself) being
In this series of lectures we give a review of the basic principles of quantum teleportation. Main applications to telecommunications and the status of the art of the involved technologies are presented. An overview of the
Modern survey techniques, principles, instrumentation, and applied geodesy with their application in the alignment of accelerator and detector elements will be presented in the course. A synopsis of the different ways to define a reference system (from Global Geodetic to Local Object Systems) will also be included. Examples will be taken from
the situation at CERN, including the evolution of the CERN Coordinate System (PS to SPS to LEP to LHC/CNGS), and the update of the...
This series of lectures will provide an overview of the physical phenomena causing prompt and remanent radiation fields at high-energy particle accelerators, including the propagation of cascades induced by beam particles in matter. The implications for shielding and design, and operational constraints are discussed, especially in view of current trends to significantly increase beam intensities in future facilities. Various aspects of operational radiation protection, b...
The vacuum energy plays a very important role in quantum field theory, with ramifications in various phenomena in condensed matter and particle physics. The recent indications for the existence of a non-vanishing
cosmological constants or of a dark-energy density have stimulated new research on the problem of vacuum energy in particle physics and cosmology.
A possible explanation for the large hierarchy between the Fermi and the Planck scale invokes the existence of extra-dimensional spaces with sizes accessible to high-energy collider experiments. This hypothesis leads to
a large number of new and interesting phenomena observable at the LHC.
The precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the satellite and balloon experiments COBE, MAXIMA, BOOMERANG, DASI, WMAP (to be followed by PLANCK), ARCHEOPS,
have revolutionized observational cosmology.
The new data have profound consequences for determining the cosmological parameters and for guiding us towards a satisfactory theory of the very early stages of the Universe and of the observed structure formation.
The theory of stellar evolution brings together different fields of physics, from hydrodynamics to nuclear physics, from gravitation to particle physics. Precise theoretical models, to be tested with observations, are important for a variety of fundamental scientific questions, like the determination of the Hubble constant and of the age of
the Universe, the primordial element abundances, and the solar neutrino flux.
Cosmic rays, which have historically provided the first tool to study high-energy phenomena, are playing a new role in modern physics. The origin of high-energy cosmic rays, gamma rays and neutrinos is still an open question in astrophysics. On-going and future experiments will
give us new information on astrophysical sources and on high-energy processes.
String theory is the only known possibility for a consistent quantum description of gravity, and it is therefore the most plausible candidate for an ultimate unified theory of particle interactions. Albeit that its
formulation requires some advanced mathematics, its fundamental principles and the most important results can be explained using a simple language and physical analogies. The lectures will be given at a level accessible
to graduate students in experimental phy...
This lecture series will summarize, explain and put in perspective the developments of the last decades concerning the basics of quantum phenomena.
Issues like Bell inequalities and the related experimental activities, quantum decoherence and its study with atoms and photons in a cavity, quantum entanglement and its possible applications, quantum information, and Bose-Einstein condensates and related developments, will be
B meson decays by the weak interaction provide a unique opportunity to measure the CKM matrix elements describing the couplings of the third quark generation to the lighter quarks, and their decay distributions are a valid means of probing interactions among the fundamental particles.
After an in-depth, theoretical introduction, the lecture series will review the experimental results available today, obtained from laboratories and experiments worldwide, on masses, lifeti...
Neutrino physics is going through a revolutionary era. New results from SK, K2K, SNO, KAMLAND, WMAP,... have appeared recently. What they told us and what we will learn in the coming years will be described in detail. The possible far future will be outlined. The importance of
this physics and the insight it will shed on various questions will be explained.
TeVatron Run II officially started om March 1, 2001 and is expected to deliver data until the LHC starts. An increase of energy from 1.8 to 2 TeV, supplemented by a factor of 100 more integrated luminosity by the end of the decade, will allow the results of Run I to be first
confirmed and then extended. The W and the top mass will be determined with an unprecedented accuracy, and a new window will open on Higgs boson and new Physics searches.
The results already achieved...
The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics will be reviewed, with the emphasis put on the highlights from RHIC recent and abundant output at BNL. The still ongoing yield of important results from the SPS and AGS programmes
will be described as well and the present overall picture will be drawn. The expectations from ALICE/LHC will be outlined.
In preparation of the LHC and CNGS CERN has a reduced but still exciting physics program for the next years.
These lectures will give a tour of of the experiments and their physics program at the SPS, PS, Isolde and Time of flight facility at CERN.
Examples are spin physics at COMPASS, prompt Dimuons and charm production in heavy ion collisions, detailed charged and neutral kaon decay studies, anti-matter production at AD, and the search for axions coming from the sun.
The dark matter puzzle is one of the most challenging questions of modern physics. Precision cosmological measurements determine the matter and energy content of our universe and reveal the necessity for a substantial
amount of unknown, non visible matter. Astronomical techniques seem to have also detected dark energy, an unexplained phenomenon so far.
The various and most dissimilar candidates for dark matter, standard as well as exotic ones, will be examined and discus...
In September 2002, about 50,000 anti-hydrogen atoms were produced by combining, in an electro-magnetic trap, positrons and anti-protons.
These neutral anti-atoms could then drift out the trap, and were detected and counted in the ATHENA experiment through the products of their annihilation with the atoms of the trap wall.The different experiments of anti-hydrogen production will first be presented and their results discussed. In a second part, prospects
for designing exp...
The study project for a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN for beam with 4 MW beam power at an energy of 2-3 GeV will be presented.
Such a beam will improve the efficiency and thus operation for the LHC,increase significantly the proton flux for the CNGS and the for anti-proton decelerator, as well as increase the flux in the neutron time-of-flight facility, and the duty factor in Isolde.
Future potential users of such a beam are the LHC, to perform beyond the pr...
The LHC collider, presently in construction, will operate
at unprecedented energies and luminosities, imposing
extreme experimental conditions to the detector systems
in terms of collision rates, overlapping events,
and minimum-bias noise, as well as radiation-tolerance requirements.
Identification of leptons, hadrons, photons, and of missing
energy is necessary to exploit at maximum the available physics channels and potentials, in fields as diverse as Higgs searches or...
The LHC experiments will explore new frontiers of particle physics, and open new ways for experimental research in high energy and nuclear physics. To maximize the physics potential of LHC, we need simulation of
lepton and hadron interactions and cross-sections in the collider, shielding, and detectors. We need to be able to predict both the detector responses, and the radiation environments in the context of the planned machine operation scenarios.
This can be realized ...
Scintillating crystals play a growing role in Particle Physics, and in other fields, like medical instrumentation. A pedagogical introduction to the mechanisms governing the features of scintillation and the behaviour of the
scintillating material under irradiation will be given. The main developments achieved or under investigation on various scintillating materials will be described, as well as the different methods used for reading-out the light.
For future programs, like NLC, a possible luminosity upgrade of LHC, and CLIC, and possibly in other fields (like astroparticles,..), it is important to
understand the new physics requirements concerning all
aspects of calorimetry, outline the improvements one can foresee relative to present designs and define the R/D needed to validate the solutions. A review of new ideas and perspectives will be given.
The spectrum of cosmic rays has now been measured over more than ten orders in magnitude in energy and about 30 orders in magnitude in flux.
The high energy end of this spectrum, events with energy around or above 10**11 GeV, is puzzling for reasons which will be explained. The ongoing and foreseen experiments aiming at the detection and measurement of such
events will be described in detail. Other important questions, concerning in particular gamma-ray and neutrino astr...
General position monitoring via satellites is becoming an increasingly important topic in science and every day life.
Recently Europe has launched its own position system satellite Galileo. Modern developments of GPS systems will
be detailed and discussed.