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CERN Academic Training Programme 2005-2006
Proposed Topics

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High Energy Physics
Theory and general subjects
Phenomenology and experiments
Applied Physics
Physics and Society
Other Topics in Applied Physics
Last Updated on Thursday, 24-Feb-2005 20:26:30 CET

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Applied Physics

A0 Accelerators -

A1 High Energy Physics: is its future on the Earth? -
Accelerators, both circular and linear, have been stretching their limits in order to deliver appropriate conditions for high energy physics experiments. Are accelerators like the LHC the last generation built on the earth? Will future accelerators have to be designed and built in space, in order to move on to the next generation of High Energy Physics experiments?
Proposed and part of the 2004-2005 programme but so far without identified lecturer.
Retained for 2005-2006 (to be crosschecked with Davide)
28-Jan-2005: Ok with Davide, retain
A2 Collective Effects in Circular Accelerators -
Single-bunch and coupled-bunch instability mechanisms will be reviewed in both longitudinal and transverse planes. The resistive-wall impedance will be discussed in the particular case of the LHC collimators, which reveal a new physical regime. Stabilization by Landau damping, feedbacks, or linear coupling between the transverse planes will also be treated. Benchmarking of analytical predictions with some instability codes will be shown as well as several experimental results.
New topic, proposed for 2005.
15-Feb-2005: Format (several speakers? 5 sessions?) to be consolidated nearer the time.
A3 Radiation Hazards and Risks at High Energy Accelerators -
Operating high-energy accelerators unavoidably leads to prompt radiations, activation of components, detectors, shielding materials and to activation of the environment, cooling, ground water and air. Measures must be taken to protect men and the environment as well as radiation sensitive equipment used in the accelerators. This series of lectures will review the phenomena causing prompt and persistent radiation fields at high-energy accelerators. The implications for shielding, design and operational constraints will be discussed, especially in sight of current trends to increase beam intensities in future facilities. Various aspects of radiation protection, based on CERN's own and host states regulations, will be described within the general view of industrial safety and hygiene. In particular, the principles of justification and limitation of radiation exposure (i.e. risk) will be examined. The current knowledge of effects induced by ionising radiation in biological matter (mainly humans) will be outlined and used to assess radiation risks and show how regulations, including dose limits, are derived.
Proposed in 2002 and 2004.
Marco Silari points out the topic is relevant, certainly in his domain, regardless of the voting indicators; and he has already colleagues in mind who could run the lectures. Furthermore the DG has also expressed recently opinions in the same direction.
Marco and Michel Martini propose to rework together this proposal.
A4 Technological challenges of CLIC -
CLIC is a high-energy, high luminosity electron-positron collider being studied at CERN within an international collaboration of laboratories and institutes to provide the scientific community with a new accelerator-based facility for the post-LHC era. The course, after reminding the goals of this accelerator and describe its overall layout, will discuss several examples of challenging CLIC technologies to achieve the very high gradients within the constraints of the selection of suitable materials and an adapted design. The status and the first results of the new CLIC test facility CTF3, under construction at CERN, will be presented as well.
Series run in 2001 and proposed again in 2004.
Stefano Sgobba suggests to reorient the topic to a shorter series (3 lectures) and focusing on CLIC including specific technological issues.
Stefano and Michel Martini propose to rework together this proposal.
3-Feb-2005: tentative abstract by Stefano, to be crosschecked with Michel
15-Feb-2005: Stefano and Michel will draft the tentative topics to be proposed to the lecturers.

C0 Computing -

C1 Internet Security Techniques: Viruses, Spam and more... -
This lecture series addresses the technical aspects of the technology involved in Internet Security, and how the different problems may be solved. This includes the risks users are exposed to when surfing the web, reading email, copying files, and installing new applications on their computers. Technical options available to protect systems, data and privacy of the individuals will be presented.
Series run in 2002 and proposed again in 2004.
Given the importance and relevance of the topic, hint is to hold it anyhow no matter what the voting indicators would express.
To be discussed with Francois.
C2 Bioinformatics: analysing the genome -
Bioinformatics is a melding of biology, computer science, informatics and information engineering into a single discipline that enables new discoveries in biology and related fields. Many questions in biology, medicine, and agriculture today can best or only be answered using extensive computing skills and resources. In particular one studies DNA sequence of organisms to understand which genes code for beneficial traits and which genes are involved in inherited diseases. One of the main applications of bioinformatics is the data mining in and analysis of the data gathered in genome projects. Other applications are sequence alignment, metabolic networks, morphometrics and virtual evolution, genomic annotation using knowledge management, prediction of structure and function of gene products, cellular and disease modeling, database searching.
Proposed and part of the 2004-2005 programme but so far without identified lecturer.
Michel Goossens proposes to approach Chris Jones to either get him as lecturer, or to get from him names for possible candidates.
15-Feb-2005: C.Jones declines to be the lecturer but offers his contacts at Geneve. Retain the topic for voting but review

E0 Engineering -

E1 Airbus' Super Jumbo 380 and CERN's LHC, an analogy -
Europe is confronting huge technological challenges. Making such a huge plane fly requires different new and advanced technologies (new materials, real-time informatics, complex CAD/CAM systems, new logistics for putting the plane together with components arriving from all over Europe, etc.) to be developed. Hence a comparison to what we are doing for the LHC here at CERN, where we face a lot of the same problems, be it in different areas, is interesting.
New topic, proposed for 2005.
15-Feb-2005: Michel does not have particular contacts. Stefano knows somebody from Lufthansa/HH who could give one of the lectures (in the area of materials). To be discussed in the light of voting results.
E2 Applied Superconductivity -
The course, intended for non-specialists, will cover fields of applied superconductivity such as science and technology of superconductors and their applications, electronics (including analog and digital circuits, large-scale superconducting devices), materials.
Proposed in 2000 and 2004.
WG members propose to merge it with E3 by becoming one (maybe the first) of its lectures. Stefano proposes to address this with Ezio Todesco (proponent of E3).
3-Feb-2005: Ezio proposes to keep it split from E3. Stefano supports this and is confident to find a lecturer through his contacts.
E3 Superconducting Pulsed Magnets: Design and Applications -
Pulsed superconducting magnets are being studied and designed for future machines. For the Large Hadron Collider, they could be used for upgrading the injectors, allowing a luminosity upgrade of the machine. The use of these devices for accelerators is reviewed, and the main parameters (frequency of the cycle and increase rate of the magnetic field) are discussed. We review the main issues and challenges of these types of magnets, such as the dissipation due to hysteresis, the needed cooling system, quality of the magnetic field and the fatigue induced in the mechanical structure.
Proposed in 2004.
Ezio proposes to retain this topic in spite of its low voting at last term. Both AT and AB have strategic interest in it so it is suggested to hold it anyway regardless of the voting indicators. The AP working group supports this approach. Stefano Sgobba will address with Ezio the suggestion of the WG to blend E2 as one of the lectures of E3.
E4 Technological Aspects in Biometrics for Human Autentication -
The technology of biometrics is used for human identification and authentification. It is proposed to extend this sytem to cover our passports and many other security systems where authentification is mandatory. Cost will play an important role when discussing the feasibility of these systems. Lectures will cover biometrics technologies, vulnerability because of erratic storage or outdated storage of data after accidents or other similar events, limitations in security and all aspects of secure storage, transmission from and to the passport/ID-card or other, protection against intrusion into the databases and possible cloning of biometric data.
Proposed in 2004. Some WG members support retaining this topic in spite of its low score at last term. To be confirmed by Fritz Szoncso that he can continue being the proponent of this topic.
8-Feb-2005: Fritz has identified someone at Philips who could lecture the topic.
E5 Introduction to Cryogenic Engineering -
Cryogenic engineering is an important speciality at CERN. With the switch on in 2007 of LHC, this technology will have an even greater impact on machine operations. The goal of the course is to provide an appreciation of the basic principals and problems associated with the field. The course will also provide a foundation for future learning in cryogenics. Topics to be covered will include: Properties of cryogenic fluids and materials, refrigeration processes and machines, cryostat design, instrumentation, safety, applications of cryogenics and examples of working cryogenic systems selected among high energy physics applications.
Topic proposed in 2003.

O0 Physics and Society -

O1 Predicting Natural Catastrophes: sci-fi or reality -
The reliable prediction of natural catastrophes such as individual earthquakes is an essential goal for science. This prediction is particularly crucial in a world where the recent developments have led to a dramatic increase of loss of human lives due to industrial and natural catastrophes, like the recent Tsunami, since "it has been estimated that within the next 50 years, more than a third of the world's population will live in seismically and volcanically active zones" (Baranov et al., Rundle et al.).
New topic, proposed in 2005.
Both Poul K.Frandsen and Michel Martini subscribe the same interest. They propose to prepare together with Stefano the abstract and possible lecturers for this topic.
3-Feb-2005: first draft by Stefano
O2 Toward Sustainable Energy Systems? -
Recent work on alternative energies go in the direction of proving the feasibility of solar energy as one of the best alternatives into the future.
Europe, as everybody else, has understandably vested interests in insourcing energetic demands as far as affordable. The good news is that solar energy may be its deciding straw, because it has remarkable facilities and projects probing the possibilities of this option.

Two european research centers are at the leading edge in this area: ENEA, which is leading "Archimede",a vast solar array project in Sicily, and CIEMAT, with its Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) ,a major solar array facility at the south of Spain.

Both will become basic poles of the planned "EURO-MED" electricity interconnection, intending to carry solar electricity from North-Africa into the Pan-European network.

We propose to expose through a lecture series the technological issues per se, and how Europe is addressing them.

aka "Very Large Solar Array Platforms - Technology issues"
A combination of both teams could be brought along in order to expose their ideas and plans on the subject. Miguel has contacts at CIEMAT to secure the lecturing of the series. It might be another of the "run anyway" topics
15-Feb-2005: there is also an initiative for a solar array at Vernier/Geneve. Chris Benvenuti/TS is about to retire and will be involved in this activity. To explore as possible contributor.
O3 Surviving in space: the challenges of a manned mission to Mars -
A future manned space mission to Mars will have to face several challenges. These challenges range from transit vehicles and trajectories, to crew safety and stay-times, to required resources and equipment, and much more. Upon Earth departure, the crew must be completely self-sufficient, flexible enough to adapt to new situations, and they will undoubtedly require expertise in a wide range of disciplines. Due to the nature of the flight trajectory, there will be no quick return to, or supplementary supply from, Earth in the event of unexpected events.

This series of lectures will address some of the problems that a mission to Mars will have to tackle. Radiation environment in the outer space and how to protect man, the effect of prolonged absence of gravity on the human body, psychological or unforeseen health problems encountered by crew members, technological challenges such as propulsion technology, power generation during the time spent on the Mars surface, surface life support, as well as how the astronauts will leave the surface of Mars and how they will travel back to Earth.

New topic, proposed in 2005.
19-Feb-2005: Marco obtained a yes from his potential speaker, should we select this topic.
O4 Space for everybody: low-cost access to suborbital altitudes -
On 4 October 2004 a private US company flew, for the second time within two weeks, SpaceShipOne, the first private manned spacecraft which exceeded an altitude of 100 km, thus claiming the ten million dollar Ansari X-Prize. The flight also marked the first time an aerospace program has successfully completed a manned mission without government sponsorship.

This is the most recent step of an intensive development program which sees a number of private companies involved to provide low-cost access to sub-orbital altitudes. Several prototypes of launchers are being tested, intended for both payloads such as small satellites carrying scientific experiments and passengers. This lecture series will present the status of the program and review the technical, financial and legal challenges.

New topic, proposed in 2005.

R0 Other Topics in Applied Physics -

High Energy Physics

T0 Theory and general subjects -

T1 Einstein and Beyond: Introduction to General Relativity -
100 years after Einstein's annus mirabilis, we celebrate his great contributions to physics and, in particular, the ideas that led from special to general relativity. The concepts of general relativity will be introduced without dwelling on the mathematical formalism.
T2 Exploring Planets and Moons in our Solar System -
The recent succesful mission of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is just one of the sources of information that became recently available to study our solar system. Other well known missions are those connected with Mars. These lectures will give an overview on the latest information and understanding of our solar system.
T3 Effective Field Theories -
The basic concepts of field theory are introduced using the modern approach of effective theories. The applications of these methods will be illustrated in different sectors of physics: from particle physics to nuclear physics and to statistical mechanics.
T4 Baryogenesis -
These lectures will address our present understanding of the origin of matter and its emergence over anti-matter in the early Universe. Scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis, high-scale baryogenesis and leptogenesis will be outlined.
T5 Black Holes, Neutron Stars and other Heavy Stellar Objects -
These lectures will review our state of the art knowledge on the formation and existence of heavy stellar objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.
T6 Diffraction: the Shadow Process in QCD -
Diffractive scattering occurs in QCD when beams of particles collide at high energies and scatter through small angles, sometimes the particles break up producing low angle debris and other times they remain intact. There may be other particles in the event but they are always far away from the scattered beam particles. Particularly interesting is that class of events where the colliding particles remain intact and in addition some particles are produced centrally, i.e. the final state consists of two hadrons and a system X. System X may in fact be a single Higgs boson and it has been suggested that diffractive Higgs production might be an exciting possibility at the LHC.
T7 High Energy Beams from Outer Space: Cosmic Rays and Gamma-ray Bursts -
Cosmic rays have been known to us for more than 90 years and their origin is still quite mysterious, although perhaps not for much longer. They are still extensively studied with balloons, all kinds of flying objects, such as satellites and space stations, besides fixed detectors both above and below ground. Their maximum energies are unrivaled on earth and can reach almost one billion times that of the LHC, but vast detecting surfaces and worldwide collaborations are necessary to obtain sizeble rates. Gamma-ray bursts, luminous candles flashing enormous powers over short times, provide a tool for observing the frontiers of the universe and a key to the explanation of the CR mystery.
T8 The First Stars -
There has in recent years been substantial progress in the understanding of the formation of large structures in the universe, and it is now believed that gigantic stars forming in protogalaxies some hundred million years after the big bang were the seeds of the large structures in the present universe. These lectures will discuss in detail the formation and evolution of first stars and their impact on the structure of the universe

P0 Phenomenology and experiments -

P1 Antimatter -
The prediction and subsequent discovery of antimatter was a triumph of theoretical physics. But are antiparticles perfect mirror images of particles? The lecture will give an overview of the present experimental knowledge about antiparticles and anti-atoms, the status and prospects of experiments with antihydrogen, and potential applications of antimatter in daily life.
P2 B-physics, studying CP violation and more -
In recent years, a wealth of data from the B-factories and other experiments allowed exciting progress in experimental studies of CP violation in the decay of heavy quarks. These lectures will give an overview of the current understanding of heavy flavour physics dynamics and spectroscopy, incorporating the latest experimental results. Open issues and prospects for future B-physics research will round off this lecture series.
P3 Exotic Quarkonia and Bound States -
Several experiments have recently reported the observation of a narrow resonance with a mass in the region of 1540 MeV. The decays imply a state which has as minimal composition in the consitiutent quark model 4 quarks and 1 strangeness anti-quark, and has thus been interpreted as a pentaquark, a completely new particle type. Since then other candidate pentaquarks have been announced.New proposals for experiments are under discussion. These lectures will critically review the experimental evidence of these and other exotic quarkonia, review the models which are used to analyse the data, and show an outlook for the future.
P4 Tevatron: Studying pp Collisions at the Highest Energies -
Tevatron Run-II officially started om March 1, 2001 and is expected to deliver data until the LHC starts. An increase of energy from 1.8 to 2 TeV, supplemented by a factor of 100 more integrated luminosity by the end of the decade, will allow the results of Run-I to be first confirmed and then extended. Presently already more than 500 pb-1 has been collected per experiment,compared to about 100 pb-1 in Run-I. The W and the top mass will be determined with an unprecedented accuracy, and a new window will open on Higgs boson and new Physics searches. The results already achieved after four years of running, both on the electroweak precision measurement and on the new physics search sides, will first be presented. The prospects for the coming years will then be discussed, with a special emphasis on the Higgs boson and BSM searches.
P5 Searching for Supersymmetry at the LHC -
A pedagogical introduction to the most popular extension of the Standard Model, describing its theoretical foundations and its phenomenological aspects. The presentation will be oriented towards the implications of Supersymmetry for experiments at the LHC.
P6 Standard Model Physics at the LHC -
An introduction of the basics of QCD and weak interactions finalized to the particle processes that will be observed at the LHC. You will learn the principles of the Standard Model and how to compute particle scattering cross sections and decay probabilities. You will also learn why computing and measuring these quantities is important to make new discoveries.
P7 Heavy Ion Physics: what is the New State of Matter at High Densities -
The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics will be reviewed, with the emphasis put on the highlights from RHIC recent and abundant output at BNL. The still ongoing yield of important results from the SPS programme will be described as well and the present overall picture will be drawn. The expectations from ALICE/LHC will be outlined.
P8 Physics Experiments with Radioactive Beams -
ISOLDE is one of the oldest experimental facilities at CERN, the one dedicated to nuclear physics and its applications. The field has a lively experimental programme and very interesting plans for the future. The lectures will discuss: the Isotopes On Line (ISOL) technique, including the physics issues of targets and sources; Nuclear Physics at ISOLDE; Post acceleration, REX and the miniball experiment; The physics potential of future radioactive nuclear beams
P9 LHC detector commissioning with physics -
This series of lectures discusses the issues, problems, ideas and time scales for the commissioning of the LHC detectors with physics data. This process will involve different phases such as: cosmics, single beams, first collisions, early physics . The lectures will cover the definition of the phases, the issues involved, what can be learned from the different phases and how the experiments (both the pp and heavy ions detectors) are planning to address them . The understanding of the detector, including also the triggers and the analysis software, and the role of the early physics, e.g. to understand the background of discovery channels, will be addressed.

I0 Instrumentation -

I1 LHC Luminosity Upgrade: Detector Challenges -
The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (10^35 cm-2 sec-1) has been studied over the last few years. The studies have included: scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of this latter on the LHC detectors. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: physics motivation for a x 10 increase in the LHC peak luminosity; machine scenarios for the luminosity upgrade detector challenges: tracking and calorimetry; electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges; Overview of ideas for an R&D program by the LHC experiments
I2 Gravitational Wave Detectors -
New gravitational wave experiments (LIGO, VIRGO, LISA) are being constructed and some start operation. These are based on interferometry, both on earth and in space. Cryogenic resonant bar detectors, such as Nautilus and Explorer, have been taking data for some years. In these lectures a review of gravitational waves in theory, and gravitational wave experimentation in the past, present and future will be given.
I3 Light Sources for Physics -
The advances in Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources have opened a new window to experimental techniques. For example existing, and under construction, ultrahigh brightness sources allow ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy, the availability of coherent x-rays allow refraction x-ray imaging, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are used for microscopy beyond lambda/2 (SNOM) to beat the diffraction limit. New sources, in particular the SASE FEL but also the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) or "table top" inverse compton scattering sources, promise to open more possibilities to experiments with more brightness, power or very short pulses A review is proposed of the characteristics of different classes of SR sources (existing, being constructed or planned) together with concrete example of their typical experimental applications.
I4 Future Calorimetry, at the LHC and Beyond -
The electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry for the initial phase of the LHC is on its way to completion. In view of the high energies and/or intensities of the upgraded LHC, and of International Linear Collider, it is necessary to push on and define the appropriate R&D for still more powerful versions of electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry. Their combination, their integration into a full spectrometer and the software needed to exploit these detectors best, will be addressed.
I5 Deep Space Telescopes -
Stars, galaxies, pulsars, quasars and black holes can be studied with telescopes for deep space astronomy. Apart from the optical telescopes, such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the virtues and limitations of radiotelescopes, infrared telescopes, ultraviolet telescopes, X-ray telescopes and gamma-ray telescopes will be discussed. These lectures will give a colourful review of the results and impact of the data of the Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, and other telescopes on recent developments in astronomy and end with a survey of future plans for deep space telescopes.
I6 The world of quantum matter -
Enormous progress in the manipulation of matter at the atomic scale has led to a large variety of new scientific and technological applications. The lecture will give an overview about the scientific aspects (optical lattices for ultra-cold atoms, Bose-Einstein condensates, high precision measurements of fundamental constants, gravitational measurements with single atoms) and examples of emerging technologies (optical combs, atom lasers, more precise atomic clocks, creation of nanostructures, and quantum computing).

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